8. ten Bosch JJ, Coops JC. } if(that.attr('ccposition')) { If the surface of teeth were opaque, it would be far easier to replicate a natural appearance. Fluorescence might be categorized as a type of reflection by opaque material. The “perceived” shape, length, and width of an anterior tooth is significantly influenced by the specular reflections coming off the heights of contour of the buccal surfaces.17 Documenting the surface morphology of posterior teeth is of less importance. It is better to build restorations with porcelain with the same opalescent characteristics as enamel rather than to create an artificial incisal halo, for example, with opaque yellow stains. Most of the conventional restorative techniques require tooth reduction in order to mimic optical properties of a natural tooth. 3. However, this introduces multiple variables when cementing and bonding these restorations in place. target_offset = target_offset + 1000; Zirconium exhibits little or no fluorescence. As teeth are naturally translucent, all-ceramic restorations have become very popular as they are highly aesthetic and can be made to match the optical properties of teeth. The terms ceramic and porcelain are often used interchangeably, but incorrectly. This means that any light rays closer to parallel to the external surface of the enamel will not cross that surface, and will stay within and be completely reflected back internally. Value is the sum total amount of light that is returned from an illuminated object. The surface textures of maxillary incisors can be described as vertical, horizontal, and varied.18 Vertical surface textures are primarily composed of the heights of contour of the marginal ridges and the developmental lobes. Color temperature is an inadequate measure of light quality for shade rendering. 4. If you want a whiter appearance with the first application, you can achieve this through something of an optical illusion. } If you’re dealing with day-to-day surface stains from yellowing beveragesor other lifestyle habits, a whitening toothpaste can help you scrub away this discoloration before it becomes a permanent part of your smile. last_found = $(this); } The dentist/technician team is responsible for artfully re-creating the natural tooth anatomy, alignment, and wear patterns of the lost tooth structure while also matching the optical parameters that generate the overall visual appearance of the tooth. All teeth have surfaces with morphological variations. 'ccSize': that.attr("ccsize"), Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. The natural halo effect in teeth is a byproduct of opalescent bending of transilluminating light at the lingual–incisal external enamel surface (Figure 3). 7. standing how the optical properties of . if ( $(this).offset().top >= target_offset ) { return false; last_found = $(this); } window.dataLayer.push({ Imagine how a crown made of porcelain with low fluorescent qualities will stand out in bright sunlight. Hasegawa A, Ikeda I, Kawaguchi S. Color and translucency of in vivo natural central incisors. } The optical properties of restorations are determined by shape, surface texture and colour, and aesthetic properties are related to how well these parameters integrate with the surrounding dentition. The blue accumulates within the enamel, giving it a bluish appearance from a frontal view even though it is intrinsically colorless.6-9. Polishing a porcelain restoration is a subtle way to lower value by making the porcelain clearer and more translucent.19,21. Conservative biomimetic restoration of teeth results in a restoration that is compatible with the mechanical, biologic, and optical properties of underlying dental tissues. Your email address will not be published. The quality of ambient light is commonly measured by the color temperature and the color-rendering index (CRI), which measures the percentage of the near-UV and visible light spectrum that a light emits. Physical Properties II. These horizontal undulations never cross each other, and they go circumferentially (Figure 6). } The ambient light quality of the operatory must be maintained with artificial lighting (natural light conditions vary). They are an excellent complement to oral examinations aiding in identification of caries (tooth decay) that might be missed by visual inspection alone. pos = that.attr('ccposition'); Quintessence Dental Technology. parent = parent.parent(); var pos = null; OBJECTIVE: Selecting the appropriate material is essential when restoring color and appearance of esthetically compromised anterior teeth. 2. ' + ad_content + ''; 1. The Optical Properties of Teeth Restorative dental materials have physical and optical properties that attempt to mimic the properties of teeth. } 17. }); Understanding the properties of light and color will help communicate shade prescriptions to the laboratory for optimal results. $(this).after( ad_content ); var last_found; Most are incandescent lights that emit light high in the red-yellow spectrum and low at the blue end (Figure 5). J Dent Technol. J Esthetic Dent. We have found significant variations in the hardness and stiffness of human molar enamel, and we have correlated these changes with trends in the local chemistry and organic content. Opalescence causes tooth enamel to reflect blue light back to the observer. The sample in the center is a replica of the left sample. var found = false; var offset = $('#article-content p:nth-of-type(5)').offset(); The more optically dense a translucent material is, the more light will enter and stay within its body rather than transilluminating. Translucent enamel displays the characteristic of opalescence. } 1 Enamel, however, has varying amounts of anisotrophic translucency, which introduces many optical effects that are difficult to replicate with a ceramic material. 'ccPosition': pos, } What appears to be a good match in static chairside photographs taken with a macro flash next to the lens and at the same perpendicular buccal view will not necessarily match in the real world. return false; The restoration of anterior teeth even for the experienced practitioner remains a challenge. 1985;29(4):667-672. At eruption, teeth have their roughest surface texture. if ( found == false && typeof last_found !== 'undefined' ) { 2005;28:215-225. Quality SLR macro-flash systems have excellent CRIs greater than 93, and are the best way to document color to the laboratory. Anterior teeth have surfaces perpendicular to a viewer; thus, these reflections have a significant influence on appearance. Pensler AV. Hue is the basic colo r; for the tooth, it . J Prosthet Dent. Dent Clin North Am. Tooth color and reflectance as related to light scattering and enamel hardness. Polishing of monolithic zirconia increases its surface gloss. An example of this can be seen in the change of width, chroma, and hue of the incisal halo depending on the angles of illumination (Figure 4). The anisotrophic properties of natural teeth will yield infinite opalescent optical effects depending on ambient lighting conditions. }); Most of the conventional restorative techniques require tooth reduction in order to mimic optical properties of a natural tooth. else { Since natural light conditions vary, the recommended standard for dental shade matching is a color temperature of 5500°K and a color-rendering index (CRI) greater than 93.42,43 The CRI measures the balance of all the visible wavelengths. Saint Louis, MO: CV Mosby Co; 1967. This increases the anistropy of the enamel. In order to achieve predictable esthetic results and a high degree of reproducibility of the original characteristics of teeth, manufacturers are continually launching new resin composites that claim to simulate the optical properties of natural teeth.1 Fluorescence is an important optical property of tooth structure and is defined as the physical phenomenon that occurs in less than 10 −8 seconds, wherein … 1998;42(4):607-612. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 12. 9. James Fondriest, DDS last_found = $(this); 'ccZoneID': that.attr("cczoneid"), Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 'ContentPub': "ID", return false; As light hits the surface of the roughened glass surface, it scatters or bends irregularly. The property of opalescence is one optical characteristic of natural enamel that can create a highly complex visual display. 'ccId': that.attr("ccid"), Color control. Wiley, Chichester (Ciba Foundation Symposium 205). Visible light is a form of electromagnetic energy.8Th… Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. } Surface morphology affects how light will reflect. 1983;7(6):384-387. Obregon A, Goodkind RJ, Schwabacher WB. var found = false; If one side of a tooth is illuminated with a curing light, the entire crown is lit. } ad_content = ad_content.replace("SCRIPTEND", "' + ad_content + ''; Knowing the language of color as well as understanding how the optical properties of the human dentition are displayed will improve the outcomes of our restorative endeavors. For a limited time, SAVE $50 ON YOUR FIRST CASE!`; } var found = false; last_found = $(this); As such, an esthetic restorative material should enable the dental professional to imitate the optical properties of natural teeth accurately. found = true; Using porcelain with less chroma and less translucency can increase a dental restoration’s brightness. 'IDCategory2': "", return false; 1999;16(8):15-17. eCollection 2018. $(this).after( ad_content ); Metamerism is the unfortunate characteristic of restorations matching well in operatory lighting or in photographs but then displaying differently when the patient smiles in other light conditions.12 Perhaps you have matched clothing under one lighting type and were shocked to find the mismatch under different lighting. Racine, WI: Golden Press; 1971:100-118. In this article, the author presents a simplified classification of teeth to be restored, in relation to the optical properties of actual ceramic systems, which helps to make the … When light hits a surface perpendicular to your eyes, a significant portion of that light can reflect back to your eyes. 'ccSponsor': that.attr("ccsponsor"), }); Choosing porcelains with higher opalescence,5 optical density, and fluorescence will manifest brighter qualities. Lowering value means diminished light returns from the illuminated object; thus, more light is absorbed, scattered elsewhere, or transmitted through and away from the object. From this cross section it is easy to see the optical complexities of tooth structure. Gordon et al. There are ceiling fluorescent bulbs that have full color content and render color more accurately. Density • The amount of mass of a material in a given volume. Over the last two decades we have studied the mechanical properties of teeth: the hard outer covering of enamel and to a lesser degree the softer mid-layer of dentin. pos = parent.attr('ccposition'); 1999;22:55-68. This effect is exploited with fiber-optic cable, which confines the light within the fibers. $(".second_ready").click( function(){ 2018 Dec 23;2018:9673562. doi: 10.1155/2018/9673562. properties of materials • Critical physical properties are established which protects the public PROPERTIES OF DENTAL MATERIALS I. } To properly assess chroma and hue, a full-spectrum light source is needed. When light enters a natural tooth it gets bounced around the enamel like a fiber-optic cable. Oral Histology and Embryology. $(function() { When reconstructing the dentin and enamel layers with dental porcelain, selecting porcelains with the same optical properties will minimize metamerism. Boyde A. An example of an internal surface within a porcelain-bonded restoration is the interface between a pressed coping and the superficial veneering porcelain. Quintessence Dental Technology. Enamel is an optically dense material bordered on either side by air or dentin, both with significantly lower optical densities. It is difficult to duplicate nature in ceramics if the clinician cannot describe or fully illustrate what he or she sees in the shade-matching process. } 2000:23:27-36. Many modern monolithic ceramic materials have defined predictable crystalline structures that do not scatter light in the same way as a natural tooth. 'Site': "aegisdentalnetwork.com", found = true; Cornell D, Winter R. Manipulating light with the refractive index of an all-ceramic material. if ( found == false && typeof last_found !== 'undefined' ) { 13. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. Bone Grafting / Tissue Regeneration Materials, Optimizing the Occlusal Plane Prior to Restoration, Hybrid Screw-Cementable Implant Restorations. If a wavelength is not part of the ambient light spectrum, it is not there to reflect off the tooth. The words value and brightness are synonymous. Overheim D. Light and Color. 1995:19-31. 1997;9(1):3-12. The capability to appraise and fully share the appropriate information from the operatory to a distant laboratory can be greatly enhanced by learning the language of color and the optical characteristics specific to teeth. Selecting the appropriate material is essential when restoring color and appearance of esthetically compromised anterior teeth. The characteristics of brightness and translucency work counter to each other. console.log(offset); Any light source over 91 is adequate for dentistry. var that = $($(this).children()[0]); 'ContentOutput': "Editorial", Opals in nature. Restorative dental materials have physical and optical properties that attempt to mimic the properties of teeth. As the wear process continues into the later years of life, usually all signs of the perikymata are lost and even the definition of the developmental lobes is obliterated (Figure 8). Enamel has a primary mineral makeup of hydroxyapatite, which is crystalline calcium phosphate. In these cases, a single shade restoration using … Optical Properties of Teeth In order to understand the appearance of teeth, it is important to understand color, light, and how human beings see. $('#blurred-signup').offset(offset); The scattering properties of a tooth are determined by its two outermost layers composed of materials with very different optical properties (Fig. if ( $(this).offset().top >= target_offset*2 ) { 21. The caries detection methods described in this paper use light in the visible and near-infrared range … Increasing opacity of the enamel, as seen with dehydration and bleaching, can exaggerate the chroma gradient. The light does not pass the surface but is reflected, causing an increase in brightness (Figure 9 through Figure 11). In dental ceramics, the appearance of the tooth is successfully imitated as a sum of all its visual dimensions. Each time more brown pigment is added, the strength or saturation (chroma) of the brown color increases but the mixture is still the same brown hue. } var target_offset = 2000; parent = parent.parent(); Geller W. Polishing porcelain makes a crown smoother, more translucent, and improves the color, says Willi Geller. The feldspathic ceramic cross section on the left is 1.5mm thick. }); Thermal Properties III. 20. Trident provides Patient First Service at a Practice First Price. Dental unit lights are commonly used for color rendering. Double layer effect and other optical phenomena related to esthetics. var target_offset = 1000; 1995;74(1):374-380. var ad_content = ``; Because the light must strike the external boundaries at an angle greater than the critical angle to escape, once the light enters the fiber at a low angle virtually parallel to its walls, it will travel down the fiber without leaking out. Fine, transverse, wavelike grooves called perichymata or the striae of retzius16,19 create most of the horizontal textures. Selecting the appropriate material is essential when restoring color and appearance of esthetically compromised anterior teeth. window.dataLayer.push({ eCollection 2018. }); In the dental context, translucency can be described as the gradient between transparent and opaque. 1998;19(4):387-396. found = true; 2. 19. Chicago, Illinois, For product information on Laboratory Services, visit: dentalaegis.com/go/id436, To read another article about Color Matching, visit: dentalaegis.com/go/id437. The Effect of Desensitizing Toothpastes and Coffee Staining on the Optical Properties of Natural Teeth and Microhybrid Resin Composites: An In-Vitro Study Biomed Res Int. } Biomed Res Int. 'ccZoneID': that.attr("cczoneid"), if(parent.attr('ccposition')){ Optical caries detection methods are based on observation of the interaction of energy which is applied to the tooth, or the observation of energy which is emitted from the tooth . When light travels from one translucent material to another, light will be either reflected at the surface, or it will pass through the surface but bends (refracts) as it passes. } Fondriest JF. These optical characteristics vary from patients to patients and depend also on the degree of incisal wear. analyzed the composition of tooth enamel from a variety of rodents at the nanometer scale (see the Perspective by Politi). If one side of a tooth is illuminated with a curing light, the entire crown is lit. pos = parent.attr('ccposition'); if ( found == false && typeof last_found !== 'undefined' ) { Light scattering within homogenous monolithic materials makes the replication of teeth very difficult. However, this typically takes between two and six weeks of regular use. Enamel and dentin have varying degrees of translucency. For light to escape an optically dense material, such as enamel, the light must hit the external surface at an incident angle close to perpendicular, otherwise it will be reflected back into the enamel body. The perceived color depends on the nature of the light source illuminating the object and what wavelengths are reflected. 'ccId': that.attr("ccid"), 'Section': "ID", } Natural opals are aqueous disilicates that break light down into its component spectrum of wavelengths by refraction. Dent Clin North Am. Chu et al 7 has provided a thorough explanation of how light and color affect teeth and restorative materials. }); var last_found; Bevilacqua et al'2 have measured the bone optical Fondriest JF. This optical phenomenon is named after the appearance of opals. The opalescent effects of enamel brighten the tooth and give it optical depth and vitality.11 The property of opalescence will cause a tooth to appear to be one color when light is reflected from it and another color when light is transmitted through it.5 The more opalescent a tooth or porcelain is, the more anisotropic light qualities it has. last_found = $(this); Light travels along the fiber, bouncing off the external walls. Effects of opaque and porcelain surface texture on the color of ceramometal restorations. 'ccType': 'Impression' 'isSpecialIssue': "false", J Prosthet Dent. 1981;46(3):330-340. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ad_content = ad_content.replace("SCRIPTEND", "' + ad_content + ''; Blue light tends to bend/refract more or to scatter within the enamel body. $('div#article-content > p.body').each(function(){ The net effect is that more light returns to the viewer as the luster/polish goes down. ad_content = ad_content.replace("SCRIPTEND", "' + ad_content + ''; 6th ed. 2000;83(4):418-423. else { As chroma increases, the value decreases; they are inversely related.3. Hue is specified as the dominant range of wavelengths in the visible spectrum that yields a perceived color (Figure 1). return false; Clinical considerations. } The natural tooth section on the right is .55mm thick. }); 'IDCategory3': "", Electrical Properties IV. var that = $($(this).children()[0]); 1974;31(2):146-154. This cross section shows the different layers of material that are necessary to mimic natural teeth. In order to understand the appearance of teeth, it is important to understand color, light, and how human beings see. Optical Properties V. Mechanical Properties I. Although natural teeth are often polychromatic, some patients present teeth that are mainly monochromatic. Chroma is the measure of how much color is present.2 When brown pigment is placed into white powdered porcelain, the mixture takes on a brown hue. Matching a natural tooth with an artificial restoration will always remain an artistic challenge. Pressed coping and the superficial veneering porcelain cornell D, Winter R. Manipulating light with the colors 28... Feldspathic ceramic cross section shows the optical properties of teeth very difficult enamel was removed correlated strongly the! For dentistry an artificial restoration will always remain an artistic challenge the sample the! Tooth section on the color of ceramometal restorations have full color content render! The striae of retzius16,19 create most of the tooth, it is easy to see the optical challenges dental... New York, NY: John wiley ; 1982 effect and other surface aberrations patterns! Like a fiber-optic cable can manifest themselves as an ever-changing light show at the surface luster window. Both with significantly lower optical densities present teeth that are prone to decay commonly used today all vary their! Feldspathic ceramic cross section shows the different layers of material that are necessary to mimic the properties of the tooth... Is essential when restoring color and translucency work counter to each other shade! This optical phenomenon is named after the appearance of esthetically compromised anterior.! Color ( hue, value, and are the best way to document to! Regeneration materials, Optimizing the Occlusal Plane Prior to restoration, Hybrid Screw-Cementable Implant restorations porcelain surface texture the. Opacity of the roughened glass surface optical properties of teeth it is not there to reflect off external. ’ s brightness that have full color content and render color more accurately the opalescent blue (. Of Desensitizing Toothpastes and Coffee Staining on the market with the First application, you achieve. Optical density, and are the best way to document color to the laboratory should! Yields a perceived color depends on the left is 1.5mm thick want a whiter appearance the. Is brand dependent, and thickness shows no effect on the nature of the at... Light does not pass the surface but is reflected, causing an increase in brightness ( 2. Fiber, bouncing off the tooth and can manifest themselves as an ever-changing light show at the surface causes increase. Hydroxyapatite, which confines the light does not pass the surface of teeth very difficult layers! Analyzed the composition of tooth enamel from a variety of rodents at the incisal edge order to mimic properties! Enamel to reflect off the tooth, it would be far easier to replicate a natural tooth it gets around! Sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and other surface aberrations or patterns such “... Ma terials include faces when using this material to match teeth color affect teeth and restorative.! The incisal edge other optical phenomena related to light scattering and enamel hardness Plane Prior to restoration, Screw-Cementable. Imitated as a natural tooth layer different colors and opacities of material are! Regular use only by how complete the communication process is increase a dental ’... The operatory must be maintained with artificial lighting ( natural light conditions vary ) significant influence on appearance even it! Composition of tooth enamel to reflect blue light back to your eyes a... A Practice First Price Torres T, Rostami H. Texturing and polishing: the final attempt at value control polishing... Is returned from an illuminated object effects of opaque and porcelain are used... Can create a highly complex visual display dental tissues with superior clinical performance of enamel that mainly. Tissues with superior clinical performance the varied textures are cracks, chips, and other surface aberrations or such. Restoration is a form of a tooth are determined by a combination of its optical of. Always remain an artistic challenge ; they are inversely related.3 Art and Intuition Grafting Tissue... When evaluating enamel translucency, the entire crown is lit ips Empress Direct was introduced to the as. Down into its component spectrum of wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum ( Figure 9 through Figure 11 ) time SAVE... Porcelain clearer and more translucent.19,21 a bluish appearance from a frontal view even it. Final attempt at value control the restoration of anterior teeth even for the practitioner! Of opaque and porcelain surface texture cable, which is crystalline calcium phosphate talent, dental. Enamel from a frontal view even though it is intrinsically colorless.6-9 ability to reflect more blue than.... Color content and render color more accurately with significantly lower optical densities teeth and dental ma include. This material to match teeth this introduces multiple variables when cementing and bonding these restorations place! Tooth enamel to reflect blue light tends to bend/refract more or to scatter within the fibers part the!, which confines the light at the blue accumulates within the fibers and other optical phenomena related to scattering. Produce fluorescence, a higher percentage will trans-illuminate the tooth, it or... The blue accumulates within the enamel was removed correlated strongly with the refractive index of an all-ceramic material porcelains. A tooth are determined by a laser detector its optical properties of natural teeth accurately Composites: an Study... As chroma increases, the appearance of esthetically compromised anterior teeth layer different colors and opacities of material Practice Price...: an In-Vitro Study an artificial restoration will always remain an artistic challenge more blue than.! Opalescence, u-orescence, iridescence surfaces perpendicular to a highly char­acterized natural dentition can be a challenging procedure for next! Light high in the form of a tooth or a restoration with higher will. Density • the amount of mass of a natural tooth gloss is brand dependent, and will... Section on the gloss called perichymata or the striae of retzius16,19 create most of the light... Says Willi geller compensate for these esthetic properties, optical properties of teeth dental professional to imitate the properties! Covers the dentin and enamel layers with dental porcelain, selecting porcelains with the same optical properties of bacteria! A primary mineral makeup of hydroxyapatite, which confines the light at the blue accumulates the. Unit lights are commonly used today all vary in their natural fluorescent qualities color.. Way to lower value by making the porcelain clearer and more translucent.19,21: In-Vitro... Used interchangeably, but present many esthetic challenges of material calcium phosphate sure JavaScript and Cookies are,! Cookies are enabled, and reload the page dental tissues with superior clinical performance which the enamel, seen... When cementing and bonding these restorations in place 3D-Master Shade-Matching System and the Skeleton Technique. New York, NY: John wiley ; 1982 which can be picked up by a combination of its properties. Translucency can be picked up by a laser detector colo r ; the. For these esthetic properties, the entire crown is lit says Willi.! Wiley, Chichester ( Ciba Foundation Symposium 205 ) can create a highly complex visual display achieve this through of... The effect of Desensitizing Toothpastes and Coffee Staining on the optical properties in natural teeth is not there to off... Content and render color more accurately eyes, a higher percentage will trans-illuminate the tooth undulations... The change of visual appearance depending on ambient lighting conditions • Critical physical properties are established protects! Between two and six weeks of regular use et al7provided a thorough explanation of how light color... Enamel like a fiber-optic cable, which is crystalline calcium phosphate will often focus on the.! Color and appearance of the left sample porcelain with low fluorescent qualities blue back. A, Ikeda I, Kawaguchi S. color and reflectance as related to light scattering and enamel hardness used. Name, email, and thickness shows no effect on the opalescent blue areas Figure... Compensate for these esthetic properties, the entire crown is lit to compensate for these esthetic properties the... The reproduction of optical properties ( Fig re-creating nature is limited only by how complete communication. Opaque material focus on the optical challenges the dental technician must layer different colors and opacities of that. The opalescent blue areas ( Figure 1 ) which is crystalline calcium phosphate ceramics, the reproduction optical. Post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and are the way. Some patients present teeth that are prone to decay ; 1982 how light and color teeth! Tooth section on the nature of the conventional restorative techniques require tooth reduction in order to mimic the of... These optical characteristics vary from patients to patients and depend also on the,! Shows the optical properties documenting aesthetic assessment findings and may be supported by using colour measurements an... Reload the page dental professional to imitate the optical properties of teeth in popularity but. Material to match teeth type of reflection by opaque material ; 1967 for these esthetic properties, the goes. Colour measurements with an artificial restoration will always remain an artistic challenge is reflected, causing increase! To decay new York, NY: John wiley ; 1982 both the and... Your browser lower optical densities as a natural tooth it gets bounced around the enamel therefore! For shade rendering disilicates that break light down into its component spectrum wavelengths. Gradient between transparent and opaque frontal view even though it is intrinsically colorless.6-9 areas within a tooth a! Sample in the form of electromagnetic energy.8Th… Highlights causes tooth enamel to reflect more blue another... Is one optical characteristic of natural enamel that are prone to decay optical properties of teeth different. Inadequate measure of light quality for shade rendering basic colo r ; for the next time I.... Wavelike grooves called perichymata or the striae of retzius16,19 create most of the left sample on lighting! Confines the light at the nanometer scale ( see the Perspective by Politi ) to light scattering within homogenous materials. Areas within a tooth are determined by its two outermost layers composed of materials with very different optical (... Bends irregularly will yield infinite opalescent optical effects depending on ambient lighting conditions characteristics of brightness and of... Layers with dental porcelain, selecting porcelains with the colors of 28 teeth from which the enamel, seen!

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